© Лим Ворд, 2018
Создано в интеллектуальной издательской системе Ridero
Не знаешь, что делать? Читай эту книгу.
Пока не запретили
Do not you know what to do? Read this book
Not yet banned
Эта книга публикуется на нескольких европейских языках, в надежде, что, кроме России, ее увидят и поймут в Европе и Северной Америке. Необходимо объединение двух культур, даже цивилизаций; российской и европейской (американской). Произойдет это, может быть в не освоенной до сих пор по-настоящему Сибири или на Дальнем Востоке. Вымирающие деревни, депрессивные города, или же развалины лагерей ГУЛАГа в расчет справедливо не идут.
Ныне иммиграционная политика правящей верхушки России имеет глубочайший, даже, катастрофический перекос в сторону Азии. Именно оттуда, с Юга, от стран – потомков древних сатрапий пришла привычка угодничать перед властями, и считать коррупцию обычным делом. Именно оттуда некогда пришла Орда, которая во многом отбросила Россию в ее устремлении к европейскому варианту развития.
Мы могли бы приглашать жить у нас иностранцев – белых европейцев и американцев. Именно, людей, не связанных с тайным или явным мировым правительством – любителей приключений, рабочих, людей дела, тех, кто могли бы поднять бизнес, и, зная в совершенстве право, культурно и эффектно сразиться с местными бюрократами- вампирами. С теми неприятными особями, которые в общем, давно уже и не наши…
И вот, во многом такие же как мы, но сколько то и непохожие Джон, Франц, Теодор, Жан, Ричард, Джулия, Эмма, могли бы помочь нам построить настоящую русскую мечту – задуманное издавна справедливое, изобильное, и не скучное Беловодье.
Нужно привести видение Истории к единому формату. Возможно, полезно было бы создание Музея – Книги, популярно излагающей все-все-все, что когда либо происходило.
Данная книга – малый первый шаг на этом пути.
Сожаления и извинения за электронный перевод.
This book is published in several European languages, in the hope that, except for Russia, it will be seen and understood in Europe and North America. It is necessary to unite two cultures, even civilizations; Russian and European (American). It will happen, maybe in the still not really mastered Siberia or the Far East. Endangered villages, depressed cities, or the ruins of the camps of the Gulag are fairly not taken into account.
Today, the immigration policy of the ruling elite of Russia has a profound, perhaps even catastrophic, bias towards Asia. It was from there, from the South, from the countries – descendants of the ancient satrapies, that the habit of pleasing the authorities came, and that corruption was considered a common thing. It was from there that the Horde once came, which in many ways rejected Russia in its aspiration for a European development option.
We could invite foreigners – white Europeans and Americans – to live with us. Namely, people who are not connected with the secret or explicit world government – adventurers, workers, business people, those who could raise business, and knowing the perfect law, culturally and effectively fight with local vampire bureaucrats. With those unpleasant individuals who, in general, have long been not ours…
And so, in many ways the same as we, but how many and unlike John, Franz, Theodore, Jean, Richard, Julia, Emma, could help us build a real Russian dream – a long-time fair, abundant, and not boring Belovodie.
It is necessary to bring the vision of History to a single format. Perhaps it would be useful to create a Museum – a book that popularizes everything, everything, that ever happened.
This book is a small first step along the way.
Regrets and apologies for the electronic translation.
There will come a time when you can not find the truth in reality. Reminds all printed text.
Read and save.
The story is as follows; while leafing through the pages, it is clearly visible. If you remove the book, the image disappears. Close your eyes – what’s there? Darkness, colored white circles. Try creating text with pictures in it. Does not work? Human memory is arranged differently than the computer board, it is analog, chemical, in this there are advantages and serious shortcomings.
Attention is focused on one object, our «RAM» works with only five or seven characters. Following the questions and associations that appear in the course of the research, we will outline the main point. We fix the backbone of History, focusing on which you can resurrect the whole of her body.
We will outline the contours of History, in order to do everything right today.
Let’s turn to the Wikipedia files in different languages – illuminating events as impartially as possible – at least from different angles of view. Say «thank you» to the authors – people are not on the content of the state, but, if they are enthusiastic, they present the object of general curiosity to us as completely as possible.
We would like to express gratitude to the authors of the photos sent to the Google resource as the Public Domain – with a license for use and modification.
Figures and facts are all that is needed to make a step from the title of dilettante to the status of a professional. And, a little inconceivable, imperishable – an ingredient, without which the constructions, based only on iron logic, crumble.
The Time Machine is in front of you, in an uncomplicated but effective psychological exercise. Take it as a game, if you want, before deep immersion in History:
Put on your dinner table food products of the century you are interested in. Now Canteen is your Time Machine. Place here the artifacts that correspond to the epoch – those that you can find in numismatists, in the ancestors’ storerooms, or with your own archaeological excavations. In the center, place this book, drawings, photographs – two, three, four time layers. Reduce the light to a single candle installed on a massive stone stand. Drink – one, or with Friends, gleaming in her light, a little heated water. Now – turn on the psychological Time Machine.
Press in order, indicated by the numbers, the virtual keys of the Console Table, with the animating motion vectors. At some point you will notice that the world has changed. There is no more time.
Now – or later, in dreams, and the very course of your life, you have progressed into History itself.
Time Machines – we ourselves. The commonwealth of independent cells, the delicate ligature of their fields, are ideally set for immortality. They will connect you with those who were before and, with something similar to us, our additions to eternity. It is only necessary to depart from the temporal reality. In this you will benefit from a psychological exercise – the dialing of a virtual phone number. The higher the number of persistent sets, and the more friends who agree to repeat these strange actions with you, the more accurate the result.
Here, the table – Time Machine looked up from the clock on the wall, went beyond the space and fled, along with you into the past. Do not stay there for long. This is against the yet unsolved rules of nature.
Cover your face with your hands.
You see? Yes, so clearly, as if in an inverted binocular…
Check if everything is the same as in the text – and follow.
Your findings are very important.
Stone, Bronze, Iron Age
History of Antiquity
The Sumerians. Ancient Egypt
Greece and Persia
Ancient Rome from Octavian Augustus
The Incas. Mayan. Aztecs
Overview of world religions
European Middle Ages
The French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte
Dynasties of England and Great Britain
Dynasty of Genghisides
Habsburg and Hohenzollern
Latin America. Africa
The Formation of Science
Science – classical physics and inventions
Science – Biology and New Mathematics
Twentieth Century. History in the battles
The First World War (Great)
The Great October Socialist Revolution (coup)
Formation of the Third Reich
The Civil War in Spain
The military conflict between Japan and the USSR on the Halkin Gol
The Soviet-Finnish war of 1939—1940.
The entry of the Baltic states into the USSR
The Second World War
Occupation of Poland
Invasion of France
Yugoslavia and Greece
Clash of the Titans. The invasion of the Axis countries into the Soviet Union
War with militaristic Japan
Japan vs. the United States. The war in the Pacific
The Soviet Union against Japan
The Cold War
The Arab-Israeli war of 1947—1949.
The Korean War of 1950—1953.
The finale of the life of JV Stalin
Soviet and American Air Force in the Korean War
China under Mao Zedong
Civil War in Colombia 1948—2016…
The Hungarian Uprising of 1956
The Vietnam War of 1960—1975.
The Suez Crisis of 1956 (Second Arab-Israeli War)
USSR 60-ies. Hopes and disappointments
Russian ally in the war and competitor in the world – United States of America
Six Day War of 1967
Events in Czechoslovakia in 1968 («Prague Spring»)
The Civil War in Cambodia in 1967—1975.
The War of Doomsday 1973
Space race. Man’s landing on the moon
The war in Algeria in 1954—1962.
The Board of Jean Bokass and Idi Amin
The Afghan War of 1979—1989.
The Iran-Iraq war of 1980—1988.
Armed conflict between Britain and Argentina in 1982
The war in Lebanon, 1982.
The fall (disintegration) of the USSR
The first war in the Persian Gulf 1990—1991.
The first Chechen war of 1994—1996.
The Second Chechen War of 1999—2000 (2009).
Wars of the post-Soviet period outside the Russian Federation
The Civil War in Somalia in 1988…
The war in Yugoslavia, 1991—2001
The Second Iraq War, 2003—2011.
The war in Syria in 2011…
The war in Libya in 2011…
Armed conflict in South Ossetia 2008
Armed conflict in the Donbass in 2014…
Anglo-Scottish armed conflict
Overview of some countries of interest to us
Australia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Albania
Byelorussia, Vietnam, Germany
Georgia, Denmark, India
Israel, Ireland, Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan, Korea North, Korea South
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
Poland, RUSSIA, Saudi Arabia
Syria, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Finland, Japan… Norway and Somalia
Running in Paradise. The history of a possible future.
The Big Bang is the generally accepted theory of the origin of the universe. Of course, this is an area of scientific legends and fantasies. At first, all that is now in the world (including this light itself, and even, it seems, the very time) was in the so-called proto-Egg – a region of space, about the size of an atom, with a density of 10 to 90 degrees kg / cm³. For unknown reasons, this Egg explodes. At first, one plasma passes into the other, and back with an unthinkable speed, emitting uniformly in all directions of the so-called «plasma». relic shortwave radiation. After 380,000 years, everything is more or less calming down. The first stable hydrogen atoms appear.
After another 400 million years, gas nebulae arise. Thanks to the force of gravitational attraction, the gas concentrates in the stars and, with billions of luminaries, galaxies.
Our Galaxy (with a capital letter), otherwise – the Milky Way (Latin – via lactea) is formed 13 billion years ago, and has 200 to 400 billion stars. The age of the Solar System is 4.5 billion years. It has 8 recognized classical planets, as well as 5 so-called dwarf ones, including now also «expelled» from group «A» Pluto.
Our Earth, according to a widespread theory, originated from a protoplanetary disk, around this time. Strangely enough, the first, primitive forms of life, nuclear-free cells, prokaryotes, appeared almost almost immediately after the termination of the devastating asteroid bombardment (the eon of Qatarhei, 600 million years), as well as education, as a result of a terrible sliding strike on our planet, an object the size of Mars, the future companion of all lovers, the Moon. However, for another long and a half billion years, the stage of development, called Archean, life forms do not develop much. The top of this demiurgic process is unicellular eukaryotes and already relatively complex algae visible to the naked eye.
All these organisms, presumably, have a single, universal common ancestor. The genetic set of all living things on Earth is the same. Their DNA is assembled from four nucleotides (biological molecules) – adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
Рroterozoic – (other Greek approximately as «earlier life») – the longest geological period, 2 billion years, starts a little more than 2.5 billion years ago. For one reason or another, oxygen accumulates in the atmosphere – and it leads to the extinction of almost all anaerobic creatures. The ozone layer is formed. The next trouble for the already accustomed organisms to new conditions is the great Huronian glaciation (2.4—2.1 billion years ago). Methane combines with oxygen, forms carbon dioxide (which contributes much less to the greenhouse effect), as a result – the Earth turns into a huge «snowball». At the equator, it is almost as cold as in modern Antarctica. Life is preserved in relatively small polynyas and ponds with melt water.
Volcanoes gradually increase the level of carbon dioxide and methane. A new perturbation is being prepared. For a thousand years, significant areas are freed of ice, and the planet’s climate, on the whole, returns to the norm known to us.
The second option, explaining the presence of signs of ancient glaciers in the equatorial regions of the planet – a fairly rapid turn of the poles of the Earth, followed (300 million years) by their return to the site.
Somehow, sea sponges appear, that is, aquatic multicellular animals that lead an attached lifestyle, as well as mushrooms, essence, eukaryotic communities that combine the signs of plants and animals. As a result of their vital activity, soil appears.
The single continent of Rodinia splits into two parts, which diverge to the poles. The northern half is Laurasia, the southern half is Gondwana.
The sun, meanwhile, increases luminosity by 12%. The Age of Precambrian or Cryptozoic, the «Hidden Life», (sometimes called the eons of Archean and the Proterozoic together) ends.
Multicellular creatures, animals, higher plants, are 580 million years ago, thus assuming the onset of the turbulent Phanerozoic («clear life») eon – in which we live, too. His first era – Paleozoic («ancient life»). It is divided into six periods: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian. They last for 20 to 60 million years.
Galaxy the Milky Way. Reconstruction
continent of Rodinia
Laurasia and Gondwana
Ankylosaurus, recognized symbol of the Mesozoic era
Representative of the order Mesonihia, the ancestor of whales, according to the theory of Darwin
Evolution of the continents; from Laurasia, Gondwana and Pangea to the modern form
The Modern Earth. A photo from the Apollo-17, 1 hour 54 minutes after reaching the flight path to the Moon (1972)
In the Cambrian organisms, first of all, learn to build strong skeletons, according to which they are detected by paleontologists. The star of this period is trilobite, a pretty pretty arthropod, a prototype of modern cancer. There are also those that, with some stretch, can be classified as cephalopods – reminiscent of octopuses and squid. Their flowering falls on the Ordovician. The Silurian, which lasts «only» 25 million years, is marked by two mass extinctions (up to 50% of the marine life). One of them, which occurred 443 million years ago, the so-called. Ordovician-Silurian is probably due to the movement of Gondwana to the South Pole, as well as a sharp drop in the ocean level. Especially got, already was prosperous brachiopods (something like oysters), bivalve molluscs, bryozoans (colonies of small worms) and corals. The Devonian period is characterized by terrestrial vertebrates, famous brush-trotter fish, insects, as well as gymnosperms («bare» seeds hide in cones), fern-like and horsetail. Racoscorpions and fish appear. Trilobites, on the contrary, with such an abundance of predators, are rapidly dying out. However, the massive sea at the end of the Devonian, affects more than half of the entire marine life and flora; the reason for this, perhaps – the notorious comet.
A fairly long (60 million years) Carboniferous period, or carbon begins 359 million years ago, it is characterized, as the name implies, by intense coal formation. The gymnosperms are developing and thriving: coniferous, cordaite (trees resembling these very conifers), and cicadassia (a cross between palm and fern), mussels and horsetails. In warm bogs amphibians prosper (stegocephalus, they are labyrinthodontes resembling crocodile-newt), ripidity (even larger, 8-meter crocodile), in the seas – sharks reaching 13 meters in length. In the air hover mega-moves – dragonflies with a wingspan of up to 65 cm. This air itself is characterized by an elevated – up to 35%, oxygen content (now 21%).
In the Perm period (Perm, the name of the Russian city in the vicinity of which this stage is allocated) the continents unite again, somewhat differently, forming a single Pangea – washed by the unified world ocean of the Pantalassa. Later, in the Jurassic period of the next era, it will split into six continents known to us. This geological process is characterized by a decrease in the area of inland water bodies, the onset of deserts. Sandy barkhans cover almost the entire territory of present-day Siberia. Carboniferous deposits (coal) overlap with Triassic (motley sandstone, shell limestone).
The successes of the speciation of Perm are rather modest – several new species of insects. The period ends with the largest in the history of the Earth, the Permian-Triassic extinction (English The Great Dying), 252 million years ago. In less than 60 thousand years, 96% of marine species, 70% of terrestrial vertebrates and 83% of the whole class of insects perish. The main hypotheses of the causes of the event: 1 – the fall of an asteroid a few tens of kilometers in diameter. The crater near Wilkes land (Antarctica, a site with a 300 km ring anomaly opposite Australia) seems to confirm this version. 2 – the release of greenhouse gas from, until the rest at the bottom, at the earth’s poles, frozen methane hydrates. In this case, the world ocean boils, permeated with bubbles, like champagne, freed from cork, giving out about 4 trillion tons of methane to the atmosphere in less than a period of ordinary human life. The weather is going crazy, sharp (more than 6Сº per year) warming is replaced by cold snaps, and this is completely out of the question for all the inhabitants of the planet. 3 – anoxia (suffocation). The waters of the oceans, seas, lakes come into contact with hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), volcanos suddenly released into the atmosphere (including so-called Siberian traps, flooding huge areas of hot lava), acidify, lose oxygen. The remains of animals also give off the notorious H2S, which aggravates the tragedy that is taking place.
Be that as it may, cute trilobites, and with them Paleozoic himself, come to an end.
The restoration of the biosphere takes five million years. The Triassic, the first period of the Mesozoic Era, opens.
Among the surviving (diapsidic) reptiles are archosaurs («initial lizards», classified by some features of the skull, nasal septum, jaws) – which become the ancestors of modern birds and crocodiles, as well as the entire family of now extinct dinosaurs. Belemnites appear, a distant analogy of squid, ammonites, with shells twisted into a spiral, gastropods (gastropods), ie, snails, and also well-known to us bivalve mollusks – oysters.
Of the shellfish with ganoid scales (rhombic plates with hook-shaped protrusions, which are connected by them in the likeness of an external skeleton), the bony ones, in fact, the same ray-fish, stand out.
Formed a classic turtle. Synapsides, they are the theromorphs, they are the same animal-like, namely, their suborder cynodonts of the group of theriodontes (zverozuby lizards), become the ancestors of mammals. This lizard has four unusually long paws (legs), laying eggs (like some modern mammals), most likely has a wool, judging by the structure of the nasal septum, warms the inhaled air, and the cold-blooded reptile in general, is now not.
Trias lasts almost 50 million years, and ends 200 million years ago, another global catastrophe, the so-called. Triassic-Jurassic extinction of species. Causes may be the same as that which marked the arrival of a new era. The result – the extinction of half of the species, the release of many ecological niches – which without delay occupy dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs, that is, «terrible lizards» differ from ordinary reptiles for that time only by their gigantic size. There is no fundamental difference. But, as you know, size – often it matters. The largest representative of this order, a group of herbivorous sauropods (four-legged) – seismosaurus, reaches a length of 36 meters, in height – as far as could raise the neck – 20 meters, with a weight of 140 tons. Titanosaurus weighs «only» 50 tons, but is more widely represented in fossil remains. Theropods (reindeer, moving on two legs), as a rule – predators. Their champion is tyrannosaurus rex, height to the end of the thigh (trunk) is 4.5 meters, length is 13 meters, weight is 8 tons. A slightly smaller mass can boast of a modern African elephant.
The Jurassic period (Jurassic, according to the name of the mountains in Switzerland) is characterized by limestones, detrital rocks (sharp stones), shales (rocks with layered fusion of minerals), magmatic rocks (basalt – friable gray stone with yellow-green crystalline impregnations, granite,), clays and sands. All this is evidence of the rapid disintegration of Pangea into continental blocks, with the concomitant formation of many shallow warm seas. Tree-like ferns («vascular plants») are widely spread, with branches lying in the same plane forming a kind of leaf, and also similar to them – as well as modern palms, slightly less lush 10—18 meter long cycads. Reef communities formed from the Triassic, coral polyps are formed.
Archeopteryx, a dead end of evolution, appears – an «ancient bird», the size of a crow, rather clumsy, as paleontologists say, planning from tree to tree. Actually, the scientific community has not yet developed a generally accepted theory of bird origin. In any case, it is in the Jurassic, pterosaurs, flying warm-blooded lizards, conquer the air. The most famous representative of this genus (the suborder of pterodactyli), the hero of the film «The Jurassic Park» is Pteranodon, with a wingspan of 7 meters, but also known in North America is the Quetzalcoatl, 12 meters wide – which corresponds to the size of the light bomber of the Second world war. Their weight is up to 200 kg. – contradicts the conclusions of those biophysical scientists who prove the impossibility of a free flight for the beings of such a mass (under terrestrial conditions).
The cretaceous period (chalk), which began 145 million years ago according to a rather arbitrary decision of scientists, is characterized by abundant sedimentary deposits of the writing chalk – formed from the remains of invertebrate marine animals – mainly ammonites, already remembered by us on twisted shells. Extensive areas of land, in particular, Africa and South America, India and Australia diverge from one another further, forming new water spaces, warm shallows and islands. Appear flowering plants, they are angiosperms – with a flower as a reproductive organ and quite complex, the so-called. double fertilization (an embryo sac of several cells and, in fact, an ovum).
This pleases insects, becoming the main pollinators. Their diversity increases many times. In the sky, along with pterodactyls, more like bats, real, that is, flying birds fly.
All this idyll is over 65 million years ago, during the most famous, small-Paleogene great extinction. The main version is the fall of the celestial body, which caused the appearance of the Chicxulub Crater near the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). The diameter of the asteroid is 10 kilometers, the depth of the crater is 17—20 km. the width is 180 km. Thus, the impact force is 2 million times higher than the energy released during the testing of the powerful hydrogen bomb AN 602 on Novaya Zemlya in 1962.
Perhaps, the impact is supported by the fall of the second celestial body, an asteroid or a comet – which gave rise to the oval Shiva crater near the western coast of modern India – 400 kilometers in the narrowest part. Apparently, after the first outbreak of extinction, some species of dinosaurs existed one to two million years.
Be that as it may, the deposition of chalk separates from the rocks of the next period a layer of monotonous clay, sand and lime. A new era – Cainozoic («new life»). Starts with the Paleogene. This geological period is distinguished by an even tropical climate, the dominance of mammals, birds, the first cetaceans, and also bony fishes. Some cephalopods get rid of shells, turn into known octopuses, cuttlefish and squid.
Neogene is fastened 23 million years ago. Whales are completely formed.
Their basis, incidentally, is a detachment of mesonichia, now extinct (existed 63 to 28 million years ago), one of the few predators among ungulates. Some of them, for example, the genus Mesonix, resembled a wolf, others – Andrewsarch – a bear, while the length of the body was 3.7 meters. Representatives of other (related) genera are quite similar to cave lions.
…Placental, that is, viviparous mammals dominate. The entire fauna of the period is already clearly similar to the modern one.
Quaternary period, he is anthropogen («creating man») begins 2, 588 million years ago. It is separated from the previous epoch by the paleomagnetic Gauss-Matuyama boundary: the S-N poles of the Earth change places, which is determined by the studies of the primary magnetization of the lava of the corresponding time. The first epoch – Pleistocene (from other Greek words «numerous» and «modern») – the time of great glaciations and interglacial periods, ends 11.7 thousand years ago. There are a lot of animals, including those that are not found now-woolly rhinoceroses, saber-toothed tigers, cave lions, marsupials, mammoths and diprotons (some kind of marsupial grizzly ones), mastodons (extremely simplified – short-haired mammoths with a special structure of jaws). Hard cooling (glacials), during which glaciers occupy up to 30% of the land area last an average of 40 thousand years, are replaced by 20 – thousand-year interglacials (interglacials).
The last glacial epoch, the Wurm glaciation begins 110 thousand years ago. From Norway, across Eurasia, a horrifying glacial shield disintegrates. On the whole, the coverlets of Antarctica are formed (there is a version, it happened later, almost 10 thousand years BC). The last glacial maximum ends precisely in time. The level of the World Ocean, which was less than the modern one at 120—135 meters, is gradually rising.
Everything seems to be good. But, why did the fossil animals adapted to many perturbations die out? There is evidence, a good reason for this – the fall of a large meteorite, in fact, an asteroid in the area of present-day Canada (the neighborhood of Quebec), or Mexico, associated with that sharp, during the day, global, although relatively short (a thousand years) cold snap.
One way or another, the Holocene begins («whole» and «new»), the last interglacial known to us, continuing to this day.
Actually, man stands out from the animal world three million years ago, in the Paleolithic (the first landmark of the Homo scale), roughly coinciding with the Pleistocene. About 150,000 years ago, Homo habilis appeared, the so-called. a man of skill, capable, albeit primitive, but of thinking, creating, using stone, bone and wooden tools.
People, almost indistinguishable from modern ones, Homo sapiens are formed 35—40 thousand years before us. These numbers are very controversial, but we can represent them as a basis for subsequent reasoning. Their skills – the production of ceramics, fishing, hunting, tools, clothing, bone, leather, wood.
There are the first, as yet primitive religious rituals.
It is generally believed that, at that time, Neanderthals literally co-existed side by side and Neanderthals were co-existing, and Cro-Magnon people – in some way initially very developed hominids. This theory is obvious, smells of Nazism, it is controversial, but as a fetish of academic science, we can consider it.
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